Sudden fainting often occurs in patients with apoplexy, epilepsy, convulsions, or high fever. For example, in apoplexy, administering an herb by hand may be necessary to arouse a patient who has fainted. This is one reason why this class of herbs comes in tablets and powder.
There are two different types of loss of consciousness: the "closed type" and the "prolapse type," each requiring different treatment. When a patient faints with closed fists, a locked jaw, rough breathing, and a strong pulse, it is the closed type and should be treated with herbs from this class, such as benzoin. However, when a patient faints with open hands, a pale complexion, and a weak pulse, it is the prolapse type, which should be treated with ginseng, an herb in class 16.